Overview of ADHD

Overview of ADHD

The Basics of ADHD According to Dr. Michele A. Campione MD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder impacting adults and children. It is mostly described as a continuous pattern of hyperactivity-impulsivity and/or inattention that conflicts with individuals’ daily work or school life and in relationships. Dr. Michele A. Campione MD notes that those affected by ADHD could have difficulties with managing tasks, starting projects, being organized, and maintaining attention.

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Types of ADHD

Three types of ADHD exist including:


Those inflicted with the hyperactive/impulsive type have difficulty remaining seated and regularly fidgets with their feet or hands and squirms in their chair. Dr. Michele A. Campione MD notes that this can be incredibly distracting to the patient and those around them at school or in the office.

Another common trait of those this type is they talk excessively and blurt out answers in class or meetings before the questions have finished being asked. This indicates they are driven toward impulsivity to answer questions before waiting their turn.

Part of this impulsivity is those inflicted are constantly interrupting others. This type’s behavior is as if they are driven by a motor that is constantly running and never turns off.


The inattentive type fails to pay attention to details thus making careless mistakes at work, in school, or during projects. Part of this inattention to detail is their inability to listen during regular conversations. Also, the inattentive type never follows the instructions and often fails to complete workplace duties, chores, and schoolwork.

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Another trait of this type according to Dr. Michele A. Campione MD is they have difficulty organizing activities and tasks, often losing critical components needed to complete a task. Additionally, the inattentive type is easily distracted by outside stimuli and is regularly forgetful with daily activities.


Those who have the hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive types of ADHD are considered to meet the criteria for the combined type. This is the most common type of ADHD and those who suffer from it have above-average activity and energy levels, a tendency toward impulsiveness, and difficulty paying attention to the most basic tasks and instructions.

The ADHD type a patient has determines the treatment. It is also important to note that this type could change over time which will impact long-term treatment plans.

What Causes ADHD?

Although ADHD is a common ailment, researchers and doctors are not completely certain what causes this condition. One agreed-upon theory relates to neurological origins with genetics playing a part.

Research has found that a reduction in dopamine is a primary factor. Dopamine is a brain chemical that helps transport signals between nerves, so it plays a critical role in triggering movements and emotional responses to situations.

Dr. Michele A. Campione MD says that Additional research suggests there is a structural difference in the brain of those with and without ADHD. Findings show those with ADHD have less gray matter volume. Gray matter is included in areas of the brain that assist with decision-making, muscle control, self-control, and speech.

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